THE CLIMATE IN THE NATIONAL PARK OF MACHU PICCHU, INCA TRAIL  AND CUSCO

Inca Trail Machu Picchu Machu Picchu, is located in a sub-tropical zone, located in the ecoregion of the Yunga – Quechua fluvial of Peru, for being a warm valley, it is of generally mountainous relief, with narrow and deep valleys. The climate is warm to moderate, slightly humid, with seasonal rainfall of more than 400 mm.

Basically, the rainy season, is from November to April, the climate is temperate cold, depending on the altitude, latitude and time of year and of course with the presence of rain.

The dry season is from May to October, however the rain can fall at any time of the year. Within this territory there are archaeological monuments, mountains, rivers, lagoons and abundant flora and fauna, typical of the area (jungle brow). Around this area there are 230,716,966 hectares, considered as a reserved zone called “Buffer Zone”; with 38,448,106 hectares that covers the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu.

STATIONS AND CLIMATE ON THE INCA TRAIL

On the Inca Trail, there are two distinct periods, the dry season and the rainy season. The best time to travel the Inca Trail is from April to October (dry season), the months of November to March, is the rainy season, which makes it difficult, the accesses and camps.

The maximum temperature is 19ºC and the minimum temperature is 0ºC. The relative humidity of the air ranges between 77% in the dry season and 91% in the rainy season. The annual rainfall ranges from 1,571 to 2,381 millimeters.

The climate is changing along the way. The day can be quite hot and sunny; dry during the first two days, and a little wet on the third and fourth day. In the first two camp sites (Wayllabamba and Pacaymayo) it is often very cold at night, while the third night is more temperate. The rainy period begins at the end of November, until the last weeks of March. The rains can sometimes be quite strong.

The rain can make the road a bit more difficult, on the other hand, the landscapes benefit from the rain because they get very green.

Please note that the Inca Trail is closed in February due to heavy rains that can cause erosion and also for maintenance and cleaning.

THE AVERAGE CLIMATE IN CUSCO PERU

The territories of Cusco are under the macro-climatic influence of large masses of air from the south-eastern jungle, the Altiplano, and even from the distant Patagonian region. The winds of the south forest imply immense masses of air charged with humidity, which are driven by the trade winds from the east. The winds that come from the Peruvian Bolivian Altiplano are rather cold and dry, as well as those that come from Patagonia and that generally suppose larger-scale events. These enter through the south eastern zone.

On the other hand, the local winds that are generated in the valleys and plains of Cusco have the function of distributing heat and humidity throughout the day. In general, there are two climatic seasons: the rainy season, from November to March and the dry season, from April to October.

In Cusco, the rainy season is cloudy, the dry season is partly cloudy and it is cool all year round. During the course of the year, the temperature generally varies from 0 ° C to 19 ° C and rarely drops below -2 ° C or rises above 22 ° C.

Based on the tourism score, the best times of the year to visit Cusco for hot weather activities are from the end of April to mid June and from mid July to the beginning of October.

  1. TEMPERATURE

The temperate season lasts 2 to 3 months, from September 18 to November 27, and the average daily maximum temperature is more than 18 ° C. The hottest day of the year is November 3, with an average maximum temperature of 19 ° C and an average minimum temperature of 6 ° C.

The cool season lasts 2.7 months, from December 31 to March 23, and the average daily maximum temperature is less than 17 ° C. The coldest day of the year is July 9, with an average minimum temperature of 0 ° C and an average maximum of 17 ° C.

  1. CLOUDS

In Cuzco, the average percentage of the sky covered with clouds varies extremely during the course of the year.

The clearest part of the year in Cuzco begins approximately on May 7; It lasts 4.3 months and ends approximately on September 15. On July 24, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear or partially cloudy 57% of the time and cloudy or mostly cloudy 43% of the time.

The most cloudy part of the year begins approximately on September 15; It lasts 7,7 months and ends approximately on May 7. On January 16, the most cloudy day of the year, the sky is cloudy or mostly cloudy 94% of the time and clear, mostly clear or partially cloudy 6% of the time.

  1. PRECIPITATION

A wet day is a day with at least 1 millimeter of liquid or precipitation equivalent to liquid. The probability of wet days in Cuzco varies considerably during the year.

The wettest season lasts 4.4 months, from November 16 to March 30, with a probability of more than 27% that a certain day will be a wet day. The maximum chance of a wet day is 51% on January 15.

The driest season lasts 7.6 months, from March 30 to November 16. The minimum probability of a wet day is 2% on July 21.

Among the wet days, we distinguish between those who have only rain, only snow or a combination of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common type of precipitation during the year is just rain, with a maximum probability of 51% on January 15.

To show the variation over a month and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated during a 31-day rolling period centered around each day of the year. Cusco has an extreme variation of monthly rain per season.

The rainy season lasts 7.4 months, from September 17 to April 29, with a mobile interval of 31 rainy days of at least 13 millimeters. Most of the rain falls during the 31 days centered around January 21, with an average total accumulation of 107 millimeters.

The period of the year without rain lasts 4.6 months, from April 29 to September 17. The approximate date with the least amount of rain is May 31, with an average total accumulation of 3 millimeters.

  1. SUN

The length of the day in Cusco varies during the year. In 2019, the shortest day is June 21, with 11 hours and 20 minutes of natural light; The longest day is December 21, with 12 hours and 56 minutes of natural light.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:09 on November 20, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour and 2 minutes later at 6:12 on July 10. The earliest sunset is at 5:26 pm on May 31, and the latest sunset is 56 minutes later at 6:22 pm on January 22.

  1. HUMIDITY

We base the comfort level of the humidity at the dew point, since it determines if the sweat will evaporate from the skin thus cooling the body. When the dew points are lower it feels drier and when they are high it feels more humid. Unlike temperature, which generally varies considerably between night and day, the dew point tends to change more slowly, so even if the temperature goes down at night, on a wet day the night is generally humid.

The level of humidity perceived in Cusco, measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is embarrassing, oppressive or unbearable, does not vary considerably during the year, and remains practically constant at 0%.

  1. WIND

This section deals with the average wind vector per hour of the wide area (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind of a certain location depends to a large extent on the local topography and other factors; and the instantaneous velocity and direction of the wind vary more widely than the averages per hour.

The average wind speed per hour in Cusco has slight seasonal variations over the course of the year.

The windiest part of the year lasts 4.4 months, from July 12 to November 25, with average wind speeds of more than 8.6 kilometers per hour. The windiest day of the year on September 14, with an average wind speed of 9.9 kilometers per hour.

The calmest time of the year lasts 7.6 months, from November 25 to July 12. The calmest day of the year is April 23, with an average wind speed of 7.3 kilometers per hour.

The average wind direction per hour prevailing in Cusco is from the north during the year.

  1. THE BEST TIME OF THE YEAR TO VISIT

To describe how pleasant the weather is in Cusco during the year, we calculate two scores to travel.

The tourism score favors the days cleared and without rain with temperatures perceived between 18 ° C and 27 ° C. Based on this score, the best times of the year to visit Cusco for general tourist activities in the open are from the end of April to mid June and from mid July to the beginning of October, with a maximum score in the last week of August. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Cusco for hot weather activities is from the end of October to mid-November, with a maximum score in the first week of November.

  1. TOPOGRAPHY

For the purposes of this report, the geographic coordinates of Cusco are latitude: -13.523 °, longitude: -71.967 °, and elevation: 3.550 m.

The topography in a radius of 3 kilometers from Cusco has very large variations of altitude, with a maximum change of altitude of 492 meters and an average altitude above sea level of 3,469 meters. In a radius of 16 kilometers it contains very large variations of altitude (1,590 meters). In a radius of 80 kilometers it also contains extreme variations of altitude (5,551 meters).

The area within 3 kilometers of Cusco is covered with artificial surfaces (41%), shrubs (27%) and trees (12%), within a radius of 16 kilometers of prairie (43%) and shrubs (38%). and in a radius of 80 kilometers of meadow (43%) and bushes (31%).

 

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